Release 4.1 (langdale)

Migration notes for 4.1 (langdale)

This section provides migration information for moving to the Yocto Project 4.1 Release (codename “langdale”) from the prior release.

make 4.0 is now the minimum required make version

glibc now requires make 4.0 to build, thus it is now the version required to be installed on the build host. A new buildtools-make tarball has been introduced to provide just make 4.0 for host distros without a current/working make 4.x version; if you also need other tools you can use the updated buildtools tarball. For more information see Required Packages for the Build Host.

Complementary package installation ignores recommends

When installing complementary packages (e.g. -dev and -dbg packages when building an SDK, or if you have added dev-deps to IMAGE_FEATURES), recommends (as defined by RRECOMMENDS) are no longer installed.

If you wish to double-check the contents of your images after this change, see Checking Image / SDK Changes. If needed you can explicitly install items by adding them to IMAGE_INSTALL in image recipes or TOOLCHAIN_TARGET_TASK for the SDK.

dev dependencies are now recommends

The default for ${PN}-dev package is now to use RRECOMMENDS instead of RDEPENDS to pull in the main package. This takes advantage of a change to complimentary package installation to not follow RRECOMMENDS (as mentioned above) and for example means an SDK for an image with both openssh and dropbear components will now build successfully.

dropbear now recommends openssh-sftp-server

openssh has switched the scp client to use the sftp protocol instead of scp to move files. This means scp from Fedora 36 and other current distributions will no longer be able to move files to/from a system running dropbear with no sftp server installed.

The sftp server from openssh is small (200kb uncompressed) and standalone, so adding it to the packagegroup seems to be the best way to preserve the functionality for user sanity. However, if you wish to avoid this dependency, you can either:

  1. Use dropbear in IMAGE_INSTALL instead of packagegroup-core-ssh-dropbear (or ssh-server-dropbear in IMAGE_FEATURES), or

  2. Add openssh-sftp-server to BAD_RECOMMENDATIONS.

Classes now split by usage context

A split directory structure has now been set up for .bbclass files - classes that are intended to be inherited only by recipes (e.g. inherit in a recipe file, IMAGE_CLASSES or KERNEL_CLASSES) should be in a classes-recipe subdirectory and classes that are intended to be inherited globally (e.g. via INHERIT +=, PACKAGE_CLASSES, USER_CLASSES or INHERIT_DISTRO) should be in classes-global. Classes in the existing classes subdirectory will continue to work in any context as before.

Other than knowing where to look when manually browsing the class files, this is not likely to require any changes to your configuration. However, if in your configuration you were using some classes in the incorrect context, you will now receive an error during parsing. For example, the following in local.conf will now cause an error:

INHERIT += "testimage"

Since testimage is a class intended solely to affect image recipes, this would be correctly specified as:

IMAGE_CLASSES += "testimage"

Missing local files in SRC_URI now triggers an error

If a file referenced in SRC_URI does not exist, in 4.1 this will trigger an error at parse time where previously this only triggered a warning. In the past you could ignore these warnings for example if you have multiple build configurations (e.g. for several different target machines) and there were recipes that you were not building in one of the configurations. If you have this scenario you will now need to conditionally add entries to SRC_URI where they are valid, or use COMPATIBLE_MACHINE / COMPATIBLE_HOST to prevent the recipe from being available (and therefore avoid it being parsed) in configurations where the files aren’t available.

QA check changes

  • The buildpaths QA check is now enabled by default in WARN_QA, and thus any build system paths found in output files will trigger a warning. If you see these warnings for your own recipes, for full binary reproducibility you should make the necessary changes to the recipe build to remove these paths. If you wish to disable the warning for a particular recipe you can use INSANE_SKIP, or for the entire build you can adjust WARN_QA. For more information, see the buildpaths QA check section.

  • do_qa_staging now checks shebang length in all directories specified by SYSROOT_DIRS, since there is a maximum length defined in the kernel. For native recipes which write scripts to the sysroot, if the shebang line in one of these scripts is too long you will get an error. This can be skipped using INSANE_SKIP if necessary, but the best course of action is of course to fix the script. There is now also a create_cmdline_shebang_wrapper function that you can call e.g. from do_install (or do_install:append) within a recipe to create a wrapper to fix such scripts - see the libcheck recipe for an example usage.

Miscellaneous changes

  • mount.blacklist has been renamed to mount.ignorelist in udev-extraconf. If you are customising this file via udev-extraconf then you will need to update your udev-extraconf .bbappend as appropriate.

  • help2man-native has been removed from implicit sysroot dependencies. If a recipe needs help2man-native it should now be explicitly added to DEPENDS within the recipe.

  • For images using systemd, the reboot watchdog timeout has been set to 60 seconds (from the upstream default of 10 minutes). If you wish to override this you can set WATCHDOG_TIMEOUT to the desired timeout in seconds. Note that the same WATCHDOG_TIMEOUT variable also specifies the timeout used for the watchdog tool (if that is being built).

  • The image-buildinfo class now writes to ${sysconfdir}/buildinfo instead of ${sysconfdir}/build by default (i.e. the default value of IMAGE_BUILDINFO_FILE has been changed). If you have code that reads this from images at build or runtime you will need to update it or specify your own value for IMAGE_BUILDINFO_FILE.

  • In the archiver class, the default ARCHIVER_OUTDIR value no longer includes the MACHINE value in order to avoid the archive task running multiple times in a multiconfig setup. If you have custom code that does something with the files archived by the archiver class then you may need to adjust it to the new structure.

  • If you are not using systemd then udev is now configured to use labels (LABEL or PARTLABEL) to set the mount point for the device. For example:


    instead of:

  • icu no longer provides the icu-config configuration tool - upstream have indicated icu-config is deprecated and should no longer be used. Code with references to it will need to be updated, for example to use pkg-config instead.

  • The rng-tools systemd service name has changed from rngd to rng-tools

  • The largefile DISTRO_FEATURES item has been removed, large file support is now always enabled where it was previously optional.

  • The Python zoneinfo module is now split out to its own python3-zoneinfo package.

  • The PACKAGECONFIG option to enable wpa_supplicant in the connman recipe has been renamed to “wpa-supplicant”. If you have set PACKAGECONFIG for the connman recipe to include this option you will need to update your configuration. Related to this, the WIRELESS_DAEMON variable now expects the new wpa-supplicant naming and affects packagegroup-base as well as connman.

  • The wpa-supplicant recipe no longer uses a static (and stale) defconfig file, instead it uses the upstream version with appropriate edits for the PACKAGECONFIG. If you are customising this file you will need to update your customisations.

  • With the introduction of picobuild in python_pep517, The PEP517_BUILD_API variable is no longer supported. If you have any references to this variable you should remove them.

Removed recipes

The following recipes have been removed in this release:

  • alsa-utils-scripts: merged into alsa-utils

  • cargo-cross-canadian: optimised out

  • lzop: obsolete, unmaintained upstream

  • linux-yocto (5.10): 5.15 and 5.19 are currently provided

  • rust-cross: optimised out

  • rust-crosssdk: optimised out

  • rust-tools-cross-canadian: optimised out

  • xf86-input-keyboard: obsolete (replaced by libinput/evdev)